By Christopher Lord
A Democratic Audit of the ecu Union offers a scientific evaluation of democracy within the ecu opposed to sincerely outlined standards. Christopher Lord deals a double problem to generalizations a couple of democratic deficit within the ecu. at the one hand, it indicates that criteria of democratic functionality within the european could fluctuate throughout Union associations and decision-making procedures. nonetheless, it exhibits that they could fluctuate throughout key dimensions of democratic governance, together with citizenship, rights, participation, illustration, responsiveness, transparency and responsibility.
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Extra resources for A Democratic Audit of the European Union (One Europe or Several?)
A paradoxical effect of the subsidiary principle – that the Union should limit itself to those policies that ‘cannot be achieved at national level for reasons of their cross-border effects’ – is that it propels the Union towards a policy agenda that calls the adequacy of national channels of representation into question. ‘Cross-border problems’ of their nature divide actors not just by nationality but by attitude to such questions as market regulation, management of migration flows, or control of pollution.
This matters since studies of democracy have shown that it was the hierarchical nature of the state that allowed democracy to undergo its ‘transformation’ from a decision rule occasionally employed by small communities to a form of government widely used in mass modern societies (Dahl, 1989). Whilst, however, the EU is a still more massive political system than the state it is not a hierarchy based on a monopoly of violence and a central locus of decisionmaking with a sovereign right to regulate all other relationships in society.
7). Citizenship 43 Still, the development of a democratic citizenship at the European level can be expected to present a qualitatively different set of challenges to the mere avoidance of tensions with nationally constituted forms of citizenship. The remainder of this chapter, accordingly, assesses how far the Union has developed forms of identity, trust, rights, knowledge and participation entailed by an ‘agreed democratic citizenship of the Union that individuals can use in practice’ (EUDA Test 7).