By Daniela Giannetti, Bernard Grofman
In the early Nineties, significant electoral reforms came about in either Italy and Japan; each one changed a sort of “proportional illustration” (in which citizens solid a poll for a celebration record) with a “mixed member” approach (in which electorate solid ballots for person applicants and celebration lists). The reforms have been enacted by way of political elites within the context of divisions in the dominant get together, altering styles of celebration help, and get together splits, in efforts to maintain energy whereas responding to fees of corruption, clientelism, and shortage of responsibility. The reviews of either nations offer a laboratory during which to enquire the results and implications of the reforms, and, extra greatly to investigate voter habit within the context of institutional swap. The creation presents an outline of post-WWII politics and electoral reform in Italy and Japan. In all of the next 4 chapters, experts in Italian and eastern electoral politics are teamed as much as evaluation information either prior to and after the reforms. inside of this comparative framework, the authors discover such issues as adjustments in occasion festival, candidate choice mechanisms, and intra-party politics. The concluding bankruptcy considers the longer-term consequences—both expected and unanticipated—of the reforms. regardless of superficially comparable stipulations, the consequences within the nations have been dramatically diverse: in Japan, the recent procedure has taken carry, with minor alterations, whereas in Italy, there has been a reversion to a proportional illustration process. because the essays during this quantity exhibit, to appreciate why related reforms had such diverse results within the nations we needs to research how electoral platforms are embedded in broader institutional and social preparations, and think about the advanced interaction of political geography, political historical past, and the rational calculations of political actors.
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Extra info for A Natural Experiment on Electoral Law Reform: Evaluating the Long Run Consequences of 1990s Electoral Reform in Italy and Japan
In 1987, the DC finally lost its status as dominant party. The trend in electoral and legislative party dominance can be shown using the effective number of parties (ENP). 1 shows that from 1948 to 1976 the ENP in Italy was largely constant, approximately around four. This represents the era in which the DC was able to maximize its electoral support. Thereafter, from 1976 the ENP in Italy increased steadily until 1987 and then surged dramatically in 1992. Examining the link between the ENP and changes in electoral rules, the difference between electoral and legislative ENP reveals that an increase in party fragmentation preceded the electoral reform of 1993.
This is consistent with the ups and downs of the partisan power balance between the LDP and DPJ between the 2005 and 2009 general elections. Electoral Outcomes and Government Formation in Italy and Japan, 1994–2009 The mixed electoral systems have brought unexpected consequences in electoral outcomes and office formation from SMDs and PR in both Italy and Japan. The following sub-sections specify these changes: the Italian bipolar competition with increasing party fragmentation as contrasted with the Japanese bipolar competition with decreasing fragmentation.
Electoral reform was seen as an institutional means of changing the system of political representation to promote alternation of parties in power, increase transparency and efficiency in government, and reduce the opportunities and incentives for corruption (Katz 2001; Reed and Thies 2001a). Although Italy and Japan underwent electoral reforms at about the same time for broadly similar reasons, the structural causes and impact of such institutional changes have been different. For example, the structure of vote choice in Italy was most often explained with reference to three key factors: Catholicism, class, and region.