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By John and Helen Steward, editors Hyman

This selection of unique essays via top philosophers covers the total variety of the philosophy of motion.

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Agency and Action (Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement; 55)

This choice of unique essays through major philosophers covers the whole diversity of the philosophy of motion.

The Social System

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43 Richard Moran speculative knowledge in being "the cause of what it understands" (p. 87). And we will be able to understand how it is that an agent can be said to know without observation that he is doing something like painting the wall yellow, when this knowledge so patently involves claims about what is happening in the world, matters which it seems could only be known observationally. What I hope to show is how the very idea of the non-observational comes to assume such an important role in Anscombe's understanding of action, something she herself says very little about.

Notice that even when what is alleged to be shorthand is given in its unabbreviated version, still the agent's role in action could not be conveyed. For when an account of the causal transaction in a case of agency is given in the claim that a person's believing something and a person's desiring something causes that person's doing something, it is assumed that the whole of the causal story is told in an actionexplanation. The fact that the person exercises a capacity to bring something about is then suppressed.

Some varieties of the non-observational A—The first and in some ways still most oft-cited example Anscombe gives of what she means by 'non-observational knowledge' is the awareness a person normally has of his basic bodily position: "A man usually knows the position of his limbs without observation. " (p. 13) Certain aspects of this idea have been contested, of course, but it seems undeniable that a person does have an awareness of his 44 Anscombe on 'Practical Knowledge' bodily position and bodily movements which is different from the knowledge he may have of another person's position and movements by watching what they do.

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