By K Attenborough; V I Tokarev; Oleksandr Zaporozhets
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Extra resources for Aircraft noise propagation, exposure & reduction : assessment , prediciton and control
In the simplest form of the fourth step, the day, evening or night periods are summed to give a 24-hour value. In some cases either evening/night corrections are used. Finally, as the ﬁfth step, a long-term value is obtained by means of energetic summation and averaging. The following types of indices or rating schemes result:23 • • • • noise exposure levels, which take into account human noise response (for example, overall levels in A-, B-, C-, D-weighted decibel, PNL); effective noise levels, which take into account noise exposure levels and the duration of the event (for example, EPNL); noise indices, which take into account the variation of noise levels with time and the number of ﬂights per speciﬁed time period (for example, LAeq , LDN , NEF , NNI , N , CNEL, WECPNL); noise criteria, which indicate simultaneously the change of noise levels over time, the number of ﬂights per speciﬁed time period and population reaction to aircraft noise (for example, number or percentage of the population annoyed by noise).
Under the Balanced Approach, reduction of noise at source is limited to noise reduction through the adoption and implementation of noise certiﬁcation standards set by ICAO and is not within the control of individual airports. The prime purpose of noise certiﬁcation is to ensure that the latest available noise reduction technology is incorporated into aircraft design demonstrated by procedures which are relevant to day-to-day operations, to ensure that noise reduction offered by technology is reﬂected in reductions around airports.
0) (0) (0) 11 vs = vp = 0, vϕ (s, p, t). Oblate spheroidal coordinates: x = α sin(s)sh(p) cos(ϕ ), y = α sin(s)ch(p) sin(ϕ ), z = α cos(s)sh(p). (0) (0) (0) 12 vs = vp = 0, vϕ (s, p, t). The ﬂows forming such types of jet enable lowering of acoustic radiation of free jet by modiﬁcation of the shape of the nozzle exit, for example, with corrugated nozzles and screw jets. 16 Dependence of surplus noise output of a coaxial jet (in comparison with that of a single jet) on relative velocity u. The coaxial jet is speciﬁed by the primary diameter d1 and the secondary diameter d2 : 1 – d1 = 30 mm, d2 = 50 mm; 2 − d1 = 18 mm, d2 = 30 mm; 3 − d1 = 18 mm, d2 = 50 mm; 4 − d1 = 12 mm, d2 = 50 mm; 5 − d1 = 8 mm, d2 = 50 mm.