By Mark Turner (auth.), David H. Helman (eds.)
In the previous few years, there was an important volume of task within the examine of analogy and metaphor. this is often in part due to an curiosity of synthetic intelligence researchers in simulating studying techniques utilizing analogy. It additionally arises from severe examinations of ordinary theories within the philosophy of language, with their in-built literal/meta phoric contrast. This quantity involves fresh formerly unpub lished paintings during this region, with a specific emphasis upon the position of analogies in reasoning and, extra ordinarily, their position in suggestion and language. The papers are contributed through philosophers, desktop scientists, cognitive scientists and literary critics. Researchers in those fields whose concentration is the learn of analogy and metaphor will locate a lot of curiosity during this quantity. those essays may also function an advent to a few of the most important methods taken within the research of analogy. As famous, this quantity brings jointly the paintings of researchers in different various disciplines. some of the methods fascinated by admire to the knowledge of analogy are typically really varied, despite the fact that, the articles recommend a typical end. Analogy and metaphor pervade idea and language; their shut research hence constitutes a necessary contribution to our knowing of folks. DAVID H. HELMAN Case Western Reserve college vii half I CONCEPTUAL AND express THEORIES OF ANALOGICAL realizing MARK TURNER different types AND ANALOGIES i would like to pursue the subsequent claims: the way in which we categorize is helping clarify the way in which we realize a press release as an analogy.
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Additional info for Analogical Reasoning: Perspectives of Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive Science, and Philosophy
Since metaphors occur in all languages, we need a systematic device of this kind rather than an ad hoc treatment that views metaphor as some kind of a deviation from a normative pattern. After a metaphor reaches the surface level and we have a sentence like (3) or (6) that can actually be written or uttered, we may, as Perrine (1975) points out, perform anyone of four operations for specific stylistic or literary purposes. We can (a) leave things as they are 48 P. K. SARA by retaining both Nom 1 and Nom 2, (b) delete Nom 1, (c) delete Nom 2, (d) delete both Nom 1 and Nom 2.
5 in his Intentionality (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983). 5 Searle, "Metaphor," 107-108. 6 Searle, "The background," 149. 7 Paul Ricoeur, "The metaphorical process as cognition, imagination, and feeling," Critical Inquiry 5, no. 1 (1978), 159. 8 Mark Johnson, The Body in the Mind: The Bodily Basis of Meaning, Imagination, and Reason (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987). 9 Earlier versions of the following analysis were worked out with George Lakoff. They appear in his Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things and in my The Body in the Mind.
Katz, J. and Fodor, J. A. (1963), The structure of a semantic theory', Language 39, 170-210. Katz, Jerrold J. and Postal, Paul M. (1964), An Integrated Theory of Linguistic Descriptions, Cambridge MA: MIT Press. Lakoff, George (1987), Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal About the Mind, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Minsky, Marvin (1975), 'A framework for representing knowledge', in The Psychology of Computer Vision, ed. P. Winston, New York: McGraw-Hill. Quillian, M.