By Neal T. Wright & Jaewan Yoon (Editors)
Program of GIS applied sciences in Port amenities and Operations administration discusses the hot advances in GIS (Geographic details platforms) applied sciences for port pros. This committee record identifies powerful GIS ideas for the administration of complicated port and harbor infrastructure and discusses in-depth the functions, specifications, and obstacles of obtainable GIS purposes. It additionally presents helpful GIS database concepts and software program integration information, an summary and dialogue of GIS info kinds and map projections, and a number of other case reports targeting facility and operations administration
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Program of GIS applied sciences in Port amenities and Operations administration discusses the hot advances in GIS (Geographic info platforms) applied sciences for port pros. This committee file identifies potent GIS strategies for the administration of advanced port and harbor infrastructure and discusses in-depth the features, necessities, and barriers of accessible GIS purposes.
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Extra resources for Application of GIS Technologies in Port Facilities and Operations Management
The PRN codes have a cycle width of almost a microsecond (at the speed of light, a microsecond is almost 300 m). Good receiver design ensures that the signals are almost perfectly in phase, with an error that is a percentage or two of the cycle width. This translates to about 3 to 6 m. Figure 2-12. Time-shift from PRN codes (the “slide” needed to match them is the travel time). GPS POSITIONING AND MEASUREMENT PRINCIPLES Carrier Phase-Based Range Determination In carrier phase-based ranging, the satellite–receiver distance is estimated using the satellite’s carrier signal instead of the coded messages contained within.
In comparison, GPS receivers for professional use (such as for mapping and land surveying) are typically bigger and considerably more precise. Mapping-Grade Receivers Mapping-grade receivers are developed with the mapping professionals in mind. They are more expensive than recreational receivers, are much more accurate, and have many more features. 1 to 5 m). The positioning principles behind these types of receivers are presented in Chapter 4. One of the most important features offered by mapping-grade receivers is the capability of collecting differentially corrected data at a logging rate that can be set by the user—the rate at which a position is calculated and the coordinates stored.
The reflected signals will interfere with the signals that are received via a direct path. The reflected signal travels for a longer time instead of traveling a direct signal path. As a result, this causes the receiver position to be calculated incorrectly, with the position shifting in the direction of the multipath source. Theoretically, the maximum pseudorange multipath error is approximately one chip length of the code [that is, about 300 m (1,000 ft) for the C/A-code and approximately 30 m (100 ft) for the P-code], while the maximum carrier phase multipath error is about one-quarter of the wavelength (that is, about 5 cm for the L1 carrier and 6 cm for the L2 carrier).