Download Artificial Sight: Basic Research, Biomedical Engineering, by Mark S. Humayun, James D. Weiland, Gerald Chader, Elias PDF

By Mark S. Humayun, James D. Weiland, Gerald Chader, Elias Greenbaum

Artificial sight is a frontier quarter of modern ophthalmology combining the multidisciplinary skills of surgical ophthalmology, biomedical engineering, organic physics, and psychophysical trying out. Many clinical, engineering, and surgical demanding situations needs to be surmounted earlier than frequent functional purposes might be learned. The objective of Artificial Sight is to summarize the state of the art learn during this intriguing zone, and to explain many of the current approaches and tasks which may support sufferers in a scientific surroundings.

The Editors are energetic researchers within the fields of synthetic sight, biomedical engineering and organic physics. they've got obtained various specialist awards and popularity for his or her paintings. the factitious sight staff on the Doheny Eye Institute, led by way of Dr. Mark Humayun, is a global chief during this region of biomedical engineering and medical research.

Key Features

  • Introduces and assesses the cutting-edge for a large viewers of biomedical engineers, biophysicists, and scientific researchers
  • Describes advances in microelectronics, microfabrication, surgical implantation, and psychophysical checking out of visible prostheses
  • Outlines the promise of synthetic sight and the demanding situations that needs to be met

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Additional resources for Artificial Sight: Basic Research, Biomedical Engineering, and Clinical Advances (Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering)

Example text

5 ms) monophasic pulse of electrical current, was applied to the one of the eye balls between an anodic suprachoroidal electrode placed on fenestrated sclera and a cathodic electrode inserted into the vitreous (Figs. 2c). 2c). The threshold intensity of these STS-evoked responses was about 10 ∼ 15 nC of electrical charge 20 ∼ 30 A 0 5 msec . Although the electrodes were apart from the retina, the threshold in STS was comparable to the degree that in epiretinal or subretinal stimulation with the electrodes directly attached to the retina.

Schematic diagram of a subretinal implant with external components showing the array and the cable running under the retina. 1. Biological Considerations for an Intraocular Retinal Prosthesis 25 the choroid. Then a scleral and choroidal incision is made about 6 mm or more behind the limbus and the array is slipped under the retina. The risk of a retinal tear and retinal damage is reduced by the use of this technique, but there is still considerable risk. The advantage of the ab-externo or ab-interno-transscleral subretinal approach over the epiretinal approach is that the array is more likely to have a consistent position with the retina, yet without exerting pressure on it.

To overcome these problems, the vitrectomy probe simultaneously cuts the vitreous in a guillotine-like manner and aspirates the small chunks of vitreous, hence reducing traction on the retina. For an epiretinal implant to be placed close to the retina, the vitreous should be completely removed at the site of implantation. At the end of the vitrectomy, the scleral incisions are closed using absorbable sutures, and the conjunctiva is reattached to the limbus to cover the scleral incisions. Retinal Disease Common retinal diseases fall into one of two main categories: retinal vascular disease and degenerative retinal disease.

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