By Stephen Hetherington II
AcknowledgementsContributors1. creation: The artwork of exact epistemology Stephen HetheringtonPart A. Epistemology as scientific?2. an issue approximately epistemic dependenceTim Oakley3. Accounting for commitments: A priori wisdom, ontology, and logical entailmentsMichaelis Michael4. Epistemic bootstrappingPeter Forrest5. extra compliment for Moore's proofRoger White6. Lotteries and the shut Shave principleJohn Collins7. Skepticism, self-knowledge, and responsibilityDavid Macarthur8. a cheap contextualism (or, Austin reprised)A. B. Dickerson9. wondering contextualismBrian WeathersonPart B. realizing knowledge?10. Truthmaking and the Gettier problemAdrian Heathcote11. is understanding having the suitable to be sure?André Gallois12. wisdom by means of goal? at the chance of agent's knowledgeAnne Newstead13. Gettier's theoremJohn Bigelow14. wisdom that works: A story of 2 conceptual modelsStephen Hetherington
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Extra info for Aspects of Knowing: Epistemological Essays (Perspectives on Cognitive Science)
These systems are, granted, belief systems of individuals, though the concern with individuals seems to fade to the background rather, 9 Some may be inclined to object that there is really no such thing as doxastic justification separate from personal justification. They may attempt to reinterpret the “dream of ruin” case as one where the person (S) who believes that p (that he faces ruin) is unjustified (for the reasons outlined) but where we, the assessors of the situation, are justified in believing p, because we, like S, are in possession of evidence (q, r, and s) which supports the belief, but unlike S, we recognise the evidential connection, and believe p because we believe q, r, and s.
The point about the redundancy of any necessary premiss does not depend on the necessity of the conclusions in these examples and is quite general on the necessitation account. However the first argument looks bad without the second premiss. How can that be so on the necessitation view of entailment? What is correct here is that if one of our premisses is entailed by everything it can be omitted from the set of premisses that an argument needs. This is a reply that Achilles could have made to the Tortoise in Lewis Carroll’s little gem (1895).
A definition of “dependence” is needed because the notion involved is a technical rather than an ordinary language one, as in the case of “knowledge”, where an unanalysed intuitive understanding might have been sufficient. It will be acceptable to say in the case of “knowledge” that despite the difficulty in coming to an analysis of the concept, it is nonetheless clear that we have an intuitive grasp of the notion, and that there is no doubt that there is a coherent concept (or perhaps a systematically connected set of concepts).