By By (author) William Harvey By (author) Sandip Doshi
Bargains eye-care scholars and practitioners the most important issues at a moment's realize. This name comprises synoptic textual content, convenient tables, key bullet issues, summaries and full-colour illustrations. It additionally beneficial properties scientific pearls, perform pitfalls and motion icons.
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Extra info for Assessment and investigative techniques
If the drainage of fluorescein takes longer, or if there is significant difference between the two eyes blockage of the drainage system may be suspected. If this is suspected the puncta should be examined. Irregularity of the puncta can indicate canaliculitis. Management of a blockage of the lacrimal drainage system involves punctual massage in the early stages but may require syringing in the latter stages. Excessive tearing is a hindrance to the patient and is of course clinically relevant. However, insufficient tears tend to give rise to more symptoms and signs.
It is far too commonly forgotten to evert the upper as well as the lower lid to view the tarsal and forniceal conjunctiva. These rarely cause any symptoms to the patient, but can be the root of ocular discomfort when they break through to the surface. Everting the eyelids to expose the conjunctiva in this zone is essential if follicles or papillae are suspected. With direct, focal illumination and moderate magnification they appear as moderate-sized, multiple, translucent, rice-shaped elevations.
More ‘advanced’ techniques are employed when the eye or adnexa needs to be viewed in detail. Sclerotic scatter The basic principle of this illumination technique is total internal reflection of light through the cornea. The figure also illustrates the field-of-view (FOV) – the extent of the eye seen through the microscope – and the depth-of-field (DOF), which indicates the depth over which adequate focus of the viewed structure is possible. Note that the DOF and FOV reduce as the magnification is increased (after Chauhan, K.