By Erika Lee
With the chinese language Exclusion Act of 1882, chinese language employees turned the 1st team in American background to be excluded from the U.S. at the foundation in their race and sophistication. This landmark legislation replaced the process U.S. immigration historical past, yet we all know little approximately its results for the chinese language in the USA or for the U.S. as a country of immigrants.
At America's Gates is the 1st publication dedicated totally to either chinese language immigrants and the yankee immigration officers who sought to maintain them out. Erika Lee explores how chinese language exclusion legislation not just reworked chinese language American lives, immigration styles, identities, and households but in addition recast the USA right into a ''gatekeeping nation.'' Immigrant identity, border enforcement, surveillance, and deportation guidelines have been prolonged some distance past any controls that had existed within the usa earlier than.
Drawing on a wealthy trove of ancient sources--including lately published immigration files, oral histories, interviews, and letters--Lee brings alive the forgotten trips, secrets and techniques, hardships, and triumphs of chinese language immigrants. Her well timed publication exposes the legacy of chinese language exclusion in present American immigration keep an eye on and race family members.
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Additional resources for At America's Gates: Chinese Immigration during the Exclusion Era, 1882-1943
62 Other nativists in California expressed fears of the degraded immigrants entering the country from both Asia and Europe. 64 On the other hand, western nativists continued the West’s campaign to preserve a ‘‘white man’s frontier’’ by emphasizing the diﬀerences between Europeans and Asians and by privileging whiteness at the expense of people of color. 65 Denis Kearney, leader of the anti-Chinese Workingmen’s Party, was an Irish immigrant. James D. Phelan, leader of the anti-Japanese movement, was Irish American.
S. , on September , , new calls to establish tighter gatekeeping measures have also received much media attention and broad public support. Although journalists, policy makers, and academics use the gatekeeping metaphor widely, there has been little serious inquiry into how the United States ﬁrst came to deﬁne itself as a gatekeeping nation or what that deﬁnition has actually meant for both immigrants and the nation. While much has been written explaining how changing patterns of American nativism have led to the restriction :: and exclusion of immigrants, we know very little about the consequences of immigration laws themselves.
By March of , midwestern congressman Edward K. Valentine (R-Nebraska) had articulated western exclusionists’ message perfectly. ’’ 30 With the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act in , the federal government rode to the rescue of the West once again. The exclusion of Chinese became yet one more chapter in the region’s consolidation of white supremacy, but with enduring, national consequences. The Example of Chinese Exclusion: Race and Racialization One of the most signiﬁcant consequences of Chinese exclusion was that it provided a powerful framework to be used to racialize other threatening, excludable, and undesirable aliens.